Forskning

Kjønnsbekreftende behandling fungerer

At kjønnsbekreftende medisinsk behandling gir økt livskvalitet og bedre mental helse hos personer med kjønnsdysfori har lenge vært godt dokumentert. Likevel har det blitt vanligere og vanligere å se påstander om at det egentlig ikke finnes noen forskning som viser dette. Derfor har vi samlet et lite knippe av studier med høy faglig kvalitet som viser at kjønnsbekreftende behandling har en positiv effekt på transpersoners mentale helse og/eller livskvalitet. 

De fleste av disse studiene er markert med merkelappen «Systematisk oversikt«. En systematisk oversikt er en studie som vurderer og oppsummer funn fra all forskning av høy kvalitet som er relevant for en spesifikk problemstilling. Systematiske oversikter gis derfor i all hovedsak mer tyngde i vitenskapelige debatter enn enkeltstudier.

[Systematisk oversikt] Hormonal Therapy and Sex Reassignment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Quality of Life and Psychosocial Outcomes

Mohammad Hassan Murad mfl., Clinical Endocrinology (2010)

“Pooling across studies shows that after sex reassignment, 80% of individuals with GID [Gender identity disorder] reported significant improvement in gender dysphoria, 78% reported significant improvement in psychological symptoms, 80% reported significant improvement in quality of life and 72% reported significant improvement in sexual function”

[Systematisk oversikt] A Systematic Review of the Psychological Benefits of Gender-Affirming Surgery

Jeremy A. Wernick mfl., Urologic Clinics (2019):

“This article uses a systematic review to examine the existing literature on the psychological benefits of GAS [Gender Affirming Surgery]. Findings from this review indicate that GAS can lead to multiple, significant improvements in psychological functioning. Methodological differences in the literature demonstrate the need for additional research to draw more definitive conclusions about the psychological benefits of GAS.”

[Systematisk oversikt] The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals’ mental health: a systematic review

Rosalia Costa og Marco Colizzi, Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment (2016)

“Overall, this review demonstrates that cross-sex hormonal treatment has definite effects on mental health, generally ameliorating gender dysphoria individuals’ well-being at different levels. […] More specifically, when treated with hormone therapy, gender dysphoria individuals reported less anxiety, dissociation, perceived stress, social distress, and higher mental health-related quality of life and self-esteem.”

[Systematisk oversikt] Hormonal Treatment in Young People With Gender Dysphoria: A Systematic Review

 Denise Chew mfl., Pediatrics (2018)

“GnRHas [Pubertetsblokkere] were observed to be associated with significant improvements in global functioning, depression and overall behavioral and/or emotional problems, but had no significant effect on symptoms of GD [Gender dysphoria]. The latter is probably not surprising, because GnRHas cannot be expected to lessen the dislike of existing physical sex characteristics associated with an individual’s birth-assigned sex nor satisfy their desire for the physical sex characteristics of their preferred gender.”

Well-being and suicidality among transgender youth after gender-affirming hormones

Luke R. Allen mfl., Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology (2019)

“This study is a longitudinal evaluation of the effectiveness of gender-affirming hormones for improving psychological well-being and decreasing suicidality among transgender youth referred to a transgender health specialty clinic at a large Midwest children’s hospital. […] Results: After gender-affirming hormones, a significant increase in levels of general well-being and a significant decrease in levels of suicidality were observed. Conclusion: These findings suggest that gender-affirming hormones are a valuable medical intervention with promising psychosocial outcomes for transgender youth.”

Reduction in Mental Health Treatment Utilization Among Transgender Individuals After Gender-Affirming Surgeries: A Total Population Study

Richard Bränström og John E Pachankis, American Journal of Psychiatry (2019)

“In this first total population study of transgender individuals with a gender incongruence diagnosis, the longitudinal association between gender-affirming surgery and reduced likelihood of mental health treatment lends support to the decision to provide gender-affirming surgeries to transgender individuals who seek them.”

[Systematisk oversikt] What Does the Scholarly Research Say about the Effect of Gender Transition on Transgender Well-Being?

Cornell University (2017)

“This search found a robust international consensus in the peer-reviewed literature that gender transition, including medical treatments such as hormone therapy and surgeries, improves the overall well-being of transgender individuals. The literature also indicates that greater availability of medical and social support for gender transition contributes to better quality of life for those who identify as transgender.”

A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Study of Multidimensional Body Image in Adolescents and Adults with Gender Dysphoria Before and After Transition-Related Medical Interventions

Inga Becker mfl., Archives of Sexual Behavior (2018)

“Individuals who had undergone transition-related medical interventions presented a significantly better body image on two of the four scales. Differences according to gender and age were also present. These findings suggest that medical interventions, especially gender-affirming hormones and surgery, are generally beneficial to the body image in individuals with GD. However, not all of the less favorable outcomes in multidimensional body image were positively influenced by the treatment conditions and may thus benefit from additional integrative counseling before and during transition.”

[Systematisk oversikt] Testosterone Therapy for Transgender Men

Michael S Irwig, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology (2017):

“Conclusions: Within several months of starting testosterone therapy, transgender men begin to notice many desired effects, including increased facial and body hair, increased lean mass and strength, decreased fat mass, deepened voice, increased sexual desire, cessation of menstruation, clitoral enlargement, and reductions in gender dysphoria, perceived stress, anxiety, and depression. ”